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Web Hosting - DNS, How The Internet Keeps Track of Names
The way computers communicate is, in a way, very similar to something very familiar: the postal system that delivers letters and packages. Here's how...
The Internet is just what the name suggests, a large inter-connected set of networks. But those networks are pointless without the one part that forms what is called their 'end-nodes', otherwise known as computers. Those computers often need to share information because the people who use them want to share information.
But, in a system where there are millions of separate computers, how can you enable them all to communicate? One very important feature of that solution is performed by something called DNS, the Domain Name System.
Every part of a network that is going to send or receive information is assigned an IP address. That's a numeric identifier that uniquely specifies a particular 'node', such as a computer, a router that directs traffic or other component. They look like this: 184.108.40.206
But those numbers are more difficult for people to remember and work with. They also aren't very attractive from a marketing perspective. So, a naming system was layered on top of some of them, mostly the computers involved, though routers have names, too.
But once you have a system that associates a unique IP address to a given name, you need some way of keeping track of all of them. That's carried out by several different pieces of the system: Name Registrars, DNS Servers and other components.
The Name Registrars, overseen by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) and other international bodies, provide and keep track of domain names. When you register with GoDaddy or any of a hundred other intermediate companies, ultimately that information makes its way into a number of specialized databases stored inside DNS Servers.
A DNS Server is the hardware and/or software that tracks and forwards the IP Address/Domain Name pair from one place to the next. In many cases, there are a number of them between your browser and the remote computer you want to share information with.
Suppose you request information from, say, Yahoo's site by clicking on a link on their site. DNS resolves (translates) the name of WHO IS making the request and OF WHOM, to addresses, then passes the request through the network to the requested IP address. The requested data is then passed back through the mesh of network components to your computer and displayed in your browser.
Whether the communication is between a desktop computer and a server somewhere, or between one server and another, the process is essentially the same. DNS servers translate names into IP addresses and the requests for data are forwarded on.
In some cases those DNS servers are part of a specialized network computer whose sole job is to do the translation and forwarding. In other cases the DNS software may reside on a server that also houses a database of general data, or stores email, or performs other functions.
But however complicated the chain or the parts, the basic process is simple. Translate the name to an address, just as the postal system does. Whether international or local, your name is associated with an address, and the deliveries are made to the address, then forwarded to a particular name.
The Many Faces of The Ghostwriting Professional (ghostwriting) Ghostwriting may seem distasteful to some writers, but it is the preferred profession for many writers. Some writers are more satisfied with the act of writing than have their name known by consumers. A ghostwriter is a writer who is paid to write books, articles, stories, and reports that are credited to another person. Ghostwriters have been used by many professionals, including celebrities, executives, and political leader. The writers are usually hired to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, speeches, and other material. The ghostwriter is not always left out; they may sometimes be acknowledged by the author or publisher for assisting in creating the finished product. Ghostwriters have a very important role in the world, and there are many different types of ghostwriters, including nonfiction, fiction, political, medical, blog, and academic writers. Ghostwriters provide an important service to many of their clients. Some people hire ghostwriters to polish and edit a rough draft of their articles and books. If a ghostwriter is used to edit a book or article, most of the language in the finished product will be that of the credited author. Although, some books and articles could not be finished with the help provided by ghostwriting. Typically, ghostwriters are hired to write most of the work, using concepts and stories provided by the author who receives credit. A writer, who writes most or all of the work, will do extensive research on the client or their area of expertise. Ghostwriters always prepare a book or article with input from their client, and the credited authors may provide a basic framework of ideas at the outset, or may provide comments on the final draft of a project. Autobiographies are a common project offered to writers in the field of ghostwriting. When writing an autobiography, ghostwriters typically interview the client, their colleagues, their friends and family, and may also find interviews, articles and video footage relating to the client they are writing for. Ghostwriting may be needed for several reasons and may be needed by many types of people. In most cases, a ghostwriter is needed for a celebrity or public figure who does not have the time, discipline, or writing skills required to write and research an autobiography or other types of books. Publishers to increase the number of books that can be published each year by a well-known author may also recruit the writers. There are many types of ghostwriters, including the nonfiction ghostwriter. In ghostwriting, the nonfiction writer is used by celebrities and public figures that want autobiographies or memoirs published. Nonfiction ghostwriters may also be used to write ?how-to? books, or used to write books for professionals in a certain field. Fiction ghostwriters are another type of ghostwriter, which are usually employed by fiction publishers. Political ghostwriters provide their ghostwriting services to public officials and politicians. These political figures employ ghostwriters to respond to the large volume of correspondence they receive. The writers typically draft response letters for the correspondence that is received. Medical ghostwriters are often hired by pharmaceutical companies to produce papers in medical and scientific journals on the outcomes of medications. Some physicians and scientists from academia may also be paid for the use of their name, which enhances credibility of the study. Many professionals have criticized the use of medical ghostwriting, but it is a common practice that seems to have no decrease in action. A web log or blog ghostwriter is one of the newest types of ghostwriters. Many blog operators use ghostwriters to help generate interest in their blog site. These ghostwriters are hired to post comments to their blog, while posing as others by using pseudonyms. This practice is used to generate more traffic and encourage more real posts. Academic ghostwriters are often used by university and college students, and are hired through essay mills to write entrance essays, term paper, and theses and dissertations. Ghostwriting is not desirable for many writers, but ghostwriters seem to provide a much needed service to the writing community.
Reduce Employee Turnover and Produce a Great Employee For so many businesses in the United States it is the same picture they see year in and year out. Employees come, get trained, start to be efficient at work and then they leave. The company needs to train somebody new. To reduce employee turnover and produce a great employee, many things need to be established within a company as a support structure. Many companies so often neglect to ask and wonder what their employees might like or think would be helpful to make their work environment and conditions positive ones. Whether owning a small or a large company, your immediate concerns probably lie within making profits to be able to keep the company running and to be able to pay your employees. Of course, running a company takes a lot of effort and work hours spent solely on that. But every time one of your employees leaves, you loose capital--capital you have invested in his or her training and knowledge. The knowledge capital you loose is all the information that the employee has absorbed during his or her employment at your company and all the new skills he or she might have added during the course of his employment. So how can you make your company and working for your company more attractive and also produce great employees? There are many ways that this can be accomplished, most of them are rewards to the employee, but others that are just as important include the atmosphere and conditions at the workplace. This article will discuss just a few of the many possibilities you as an employer have to keep employee turnover low. For most employees, considering that they have an expectation towards the standard of living they have, a competitive salary is an important point. If you only pay minimum wages or never give raises and rewards, it is very unlikely to hold good employees that can make a lot more money somewhere else. To make their time worthwhile after hiring, you need to know what a competitive pay is and pay them either the average pay or slightly more. As for raises, raises together with evaluations will tell the employee that his or her effort and all the hard work he or she put into your company is appreciated. It also tells the employee how good his work is and what you will expect from him in the years to come. To produce a good employee, it is important to give the employee feedback on his work. Some companies reward their employees with bonuses for accomplished tasks or finished projects. Other companies will give their employees an award at the end of the month or year and generally attach a small bonus to that. Also consider a good benefit package. Many employees look for the benefits that companies offer to them and their family to make a decision whether they should work for this company or choose a different one. Often times, vacation is very important to employees. To be a motivated and good worker, employees need to spend time with their families or the things they love, like hobbies or sports. Yes, of course you would like them to work 60 hours for the 40 you pay, but consider this: an overworked overtired employee is most likely not able to work fast and efficient. That person also tends to be more error prone and unmotivated. Time off work to relax or regenerate is very important. Companies that offer ten days are often at the top of the list for employee turnover. Some companies offer flexible work times to accommodate for many different characters and situations at home. The employee that likes to come early and leave early versus the employee that likes to sleep long and then leave somewhat later feels just as welcome in this company or setting. Besides all these added factors, the work environment also plays a great role in producing great employees and reducing turnover. A respectful and good working environment is very important to keep employees happy and motivated. You know that a happy, motivated employee works better, faster and makes fewer mistakes.